By Ralph M. McInerny
"The uncomplicated differences McInerny introduces, hiscriticisms of Cajetan's De nom inum analogia, the functions hemakes to difficulties equivalent to that of the character of metaphysics or oflogic, and his wisdom of up to date debates on relatedtopics, make this e-book unique".
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Additional info for Aquinas and Analogy
That being is not a genus is a truth developed in Book Three.! How can one science treat of substance and accident when there is no genus that contains them? The question makes sense only against the background of the logic of demonstration developed in the Posterior Analytics. The subject of the science (genus subiectum) is univocally common to subjects of the demonstrations which fall under it. 2 What is the solution? Quaecumque communiter unius recipiunt praedicationem, licet non univoce, sed analogice de his praedicetur, pertinent ad unius scientiae considerationem: sed ens hoc modo praedicatur de omnibus entibus: ergo omnia entia pertinent ad considerationem unius scientiae, quae considerat ens inquantum ens, scilicet tam substantias quam accidentia.
This correlation can also be seen in Thomas's commentary on Metaphysics VII, 4, lo30a16-27 (= Thomas, lect. 1334-1337). Aristotle is pointing out that essence and definition do not have the same sense in the cases of substance and accident but neither are they used equivocally. How then? &~, which the Latin renders multipliciter dicitur. Only substance has a what, is something that exists per se. If the definition expresses quiddity or whatness, it looks as if only substances can be defined. Aristotle, having first ANALOGY IN ARISTOTLE 35 explored the option that substances alone have essences and they alone are defined, goes on to allow that, in a sense, accidents have an essence and can be defined, just as in a sense secondary to and relative to substance accidents can be said to be.
Aristotle was able to change his mind, not so much by discovering what Owen calls focal meaning, but rather by seeing the applicability of this account to the many senses of 'being'. "lo As early as the Eudemian Ethics ll , Aristotle had seen focal meaning as a way of handling the different uses of a term like 'medical'. A man is 'medical' if he possesses the art of healing, a knife is medical if it is useful for a man having the art of healing (I236a7-33). 'Medical' is not predicated of the physician and the instrument univocallythere is no single account which serves in the two cases-nor is it equivocal-the dependence of the meaning 'medical' has when said of the instrument on the meaning it has when said of the physician precludes that.