By Innocentius Marie Bochenski
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Extra info for Ancient Formal Logic
Aristotle declares 3again contrarily to what he will say in the Analytics - that there is no single principle out of which the method could be developed: he does not yet know his analytical syllogism. On the other hand the Topics contain a number of formal rules and also some doctrines which are not to be found elsewhere, but which, as it seems, were not repudiated by Aristotle. 6 B. THE PREDICABLES While looking for a classification of problems, Aristotle was led to formulate a historically very important classification of the meanings of “is”.
9. 27. * 9. 28. * 9. 29. S a p 3 -SeP2 S a p 3 -SoP3 S a p 3 SOP 4 SeP 3 -Sap SeP 3 -Sip6 NSeP 3SiP7 S i p 3 -SePB S i p 3 SeP SOP3 - S a p lo SOP3 Sap 11 N N The following laws state the opposition between sentences containing the names of complementary classes : * 9. 30. * 9. 31. 8 false. I n the De Int. we find the following laws of obversion: 9. 32. 9. 33. 9. 34. Sa - P 3 SeP l6 S i p 3 --aP l7 5 & P 3 x & -P 18 - An. Pr. A 1 , 24 b 28-29. - An. Pr. , 238. - a An. Pr. B 12, 62 a 38f. - An.
It does not mean that he repudiated later on all considerations about essential predication 7 ; but there is no doubt that by classifying predicables he discovered and clearly conceived formal logic. 6 C. THE CATEGORIES The second classification of the meanings of the copula rises out of an attempt to give a most general classification of all objects 8. Such most comprehensive classesare called “categories” (xaqyoeiae) I n the Topics they are ten: Essence, Quantity, Quality, Relation, Time, Position, State, Activity, and Passivity g; but in most other .