By Brian Everitt

Each bankruptcy will include easy statistical thought, basic examples of S-PLUS code, extra advanced examples of S-PLUS code, and workouts. All information units may be taken from real scientific investigations and should be made to be had, if attainable, on an internet site. All examples will comprise vast graphical research to spotlight one of many best positive factors of S-PLUS. The booklet might supplement Venables and Ripley (VR). despite the fact that, there's a long way much less concerning the information of S-PLUS and doubtless much less technical descriptions of ideas. The booklet concentrates completely on clinical facts units attempting to show the flexibleness of S-PLUS and its large merits, relatively for utilized clinical statisticians.

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**Example text**

2 Missing values in a data set are represented in S-PLUS by NA. Generate a sample of 50 observations from a normal distribution with mean 5 and standard deviation 2, and 1. Arrange the sample as a 10 x 5 matrix, A. 2. Give A suitable row and column names. 3. Set the first two elements of row 2 and the third and fifth elements of row 5 of A to missing. 4. Find the mean of the nonmissing values of A. 5. Find the column and row means of the non-missing values of A. 3 Write a function that replaces any missing value in an n x p matrix by either the mean or the median of the nonmissing values in the same column.

Sometimes it may be necessary to construct a loop using the syntax > for(i in 1:5) { print (i) + 28 1. , applyO to loop through rows or columns of a matrix, or sapply 0 to loop through elements of a list. This is more elegant and faster than explicit looping. A very useful function to help avoid looping is the outer 0 function. Suppose we wish to compute points on a surface f(x, y) for a regular grid of x and y values. 1) Y <- outer(x, y, FUN =f) All values of x are combined with all values of y, and the function is evaluated.

8 Attach the Data data frame and then produce the same graphic as in 17 using the G UI. 9 Use the appropriate dialogue box to test whether the mean weight of men is different from that of women. 10 Use the GUI to produce a graphic including the three pairwise scatterplots of the variables in Data, each scatterplot having its least-squares regression line shown. 11 Write an S-PLUS function to find the position in a matrix of its maximum value. 1 Introduction The first steps to understanding the general characteristics of any data set are to calculate relevant summary statistics for the data and to graph the data in some way.