By Trevor Britz, Richard K. Robinson
This significant and complete booklet covers, extensive, an important contemporary advances in dairy expertise. supplying center commercially very important info for the dairy undefined, the editors, either the world over identified for his or her paintings during this region, have drawn jointly a magnificent and authoritative record of contributing authors.Topics coated contain: warmth remedy, membrane processing, hygiene by way of layout, program of HACCP, automation, protection and caliber, smooth laboratory practices and research, and environmental aspects.This e-book is a necessary buy for all dairy technologists around the globe, even if in educational learn and educating, or inside meals businesses.
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Extra info for Advanced Dairy Science and Technology
G. proteins, bacteria, enzymes) Definition Predictive kinetic models Process (chain) model Models for: protein denaturation and aggregation, enzyme, bacteria and spore inactivation reaction products (pigments, off-flavours) Models for: physical fouling microbial fouling Product quality (cquality) Operation costs (coperation) Minimization of objective function (F(u,x)) Dynamic optimization tools Validation experiments New conditions Optimal quality and minimal costs Fig. 14 Schematic representation of process and product development of heated milk products using predictive kinetic models.
Steinkopff, Kiel, Germany. Delplace, F. C. (1995) Modelling fouling of a plate heat exchanger with different flow arrangements by whey protein solutions. Food Bioprod. Process 73, 112–120. A. and Hiddink, J. (1983) Fouling of heat transfer surfaces by dairy liquids. Netherlands Milk and Dairy Journal 49, 139–148. , Shafer, B. and Ito, K. (1980) Inactivation of bacterial spores in products and on container surfaces. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on UHT Processing, Raleigh, NC. M.
Salts, simple sugars) are separated by a semi-permeable membrane. This pressure, generated due to the concentration difference, is termed osmotic pressure (Π), and the reversal of solvent flow against the concentration gradient by means of applied pressure is called reverse osmosis. 2) where R is the gas constant, T the absolute temperature, C the solute concentration and M the molecular weight of the solute. g. for NaCl i = 2, and for CaCl2 i = 3. It should be noted, however, that osmotic pressure actually rises in an exponential manner with increasing concentrations, and the van’t Hoff equation underestimates the osmotic pressures of more concentrated solutions.