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Extra info for A modern formal logic primer: sentence logic
Aa II:175. 32 chapter 2 of things through cause and effect; one thing causes lust, and the amount of lust can either be increased or decreased by another thing. If I have no cause for feeling either lust or “unlust” I am indifferent; if two opposite causes of lust and “unlust” are present, then I enter into a state of equilibrium. ). This can be done because of the two different forms of negation, Beraubung (an active removal or decrease) and simple lack. There is, for instance, a difference between not giving and stealing.
The difference between singular and universal on this account is simply that one reaches the singular by adding up all the predicates contained in the thing, while a universal is reached by removing at least one of the predicates. By removing the predicate red from a specific rose, I am left with the concept 47 48 B 600. See Hafemann, Burkhard: “Logisches Quadrat und Modalbegriffe bei Kant,” in: KantStudien, 93, 2002, pp. 413–414. Cf. ” Kant’s Doctrine Of Determination 25 of a rose, or I am at least one step closer to forming the fully universal concept of it.
The challenge that the antinomies pose to Kant’s doctrine of determination is that they appear to show that in some instances it seems necessary to predicate contradictory determinations of the same subject. Kant’s approach to this is to show that the oppositions that are involved indeed allow either for the denial, or affirmation, of both predicates. Two of the antinomies allow for a neither-nor solution, while the other two allows for a both-and solution. 75 In his comments on the antinomies, Kant refers to Zenon, a “subtle dialectician,” and his question of whether God is finite or infinite, moving or inert, like or unlike something else.